Ground Engineering, Hard Landscaping, Traffic Control, Leisure & Recreation, Soft Landscaping
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  • Introduction to plaques and coats of arms
    Traditional signage has a special place in the public imagination, especially when it comes to civic life, public buildings and memorials. There are certain expectations and a sense of propriety, which means that time-honoured designs and materials have an enduring appeal. At the same time, they benefit from diverse modern production techniques...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to grass seed
    Grass seed mixtures are tailored to provide certain characteristics for specific requirements. They might include fescues for drought tolerance, ryegrasses for fast growth, or browntop bents for high, dense shoots. General landscape mixes are suitable for general-purpose park, lawn and sports turf. They are economical and quick to establish. Their...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to landscape edging
    Landscape edging creates neat borders in private gardens and large landscaping projects. It is used to clearly demarcate and finish gravel and asphalt pathways, driveways and lawns, or to create flowerbeds. The edging is available in a choice of materials, including aluminium, recycled plastic, steel and concrete....
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to timber fencing
    Timber fencing is used to mark perimeters and provide privacy in parks, farms, private gardens and urban areas. Typically used as boundary fencing in equestrian, livestock and agricultural applications, post and rail fencing gives a rural aesthetic. Cleft chestnut paling is also suitable for these applications, and is supplied in rolls for...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to fitness equipment
    Outdoor gyms are becoming an increasingly popular way of promoting fitness in the community. Equipment is robust and has an all-weather construction, making it suitable for installation in parks, school playgrounds, prisons and public spaces. These outdoor gyms can be tailored to suit either adults or teenagers. The equipment is modelled on the...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to height restrictors
    Height restrictors are erected at car parks and entrances as part of traffic control measures, ensuring that vehicles above a given height are prevented from entering. They are used to stop high-sided vehicles from approaching low bridges, prevent them from accessing underground car parks with low head-room, or keep unauthorised vehicles out of...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to concrete block paving
    Concrete block paving provides durable, attractive and cost-effective surfacing for pedestrian areas, pavements and driveways. Standard blocks are small element pavers that can be laid in various combinations and patterns. Ground and polished finishes, slip-resistant options, and hardwearing, high-traffic construction make them suitable for busy...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to utility posts / bollards
    Utility bollards provide temporary services in streets, squares, esplanades and parks. They are used when larger than normal numbers of people congregate in public spaces for markets, concerts or sports events. They can provide power, communications, water and air supplies. Retractable utility posts can be sunk into the ground when not in use...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to external wall lights and bulkheads
    External wall lights and bulkheads are used to illuminate the areas around buildings. They generally have functional design, with an emphasis on energy efficiency and durability, although some decorative fittings, such as lanterns, are available. Compact fluorescent wall lights are popular, as the lamps are efficient and economical. LED wall...
    Guidance, 10 December 2012
  • Introduction to natural stone paving
    Natural stone paving is specified for high-quality external surfaces and landscapes, or for extensive interior flooring installations. As well as being particularly hardwearing, stone pavements draw on a palette of organic colours, can reflect the tones and textures of local geology and materials, and are equally sympathetic to heritage and modern...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to safer surfacing
    Impact-absorbing safety surfacing is installed in schoolyards, nurseries, playgrounds and parks, especially around play equipment that presents a risk of injury from falling. Critical fall height (CFH) is the term used to describe the maximum fall height from play equipment. The depth and area of surfacing required is determined by the CFH...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to perimeter fencing
    Perimeter fencing is used to prevent access to residential, commercial, public and industrial land and buildings. Systems include rigid mesh, expanded metal, grating, vertical bar, palisade and chain link. Sports fencing is installed around the perimeter of football pitches, tennis courts, multi use games areas (MUGAs) and other playing fields, to...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to street / park bollards
    Street and park bollards direct traffic, obstruct vehicles and protect pedestrians and buildings. They can be surface fixed, or root fixed for additional impact-resistance. Removable bollards typically have a hinged steel socket for a flush finish when not in use. Reflective banding increases visibility, and when the bollard is installed to at...
    Guidance, 05 January 2015
  • Introduction to mortars
    Mortars are used in masonry to fill the gaps between stones, bricks, blocks and pavers, as well as bedding them in and binding them together. Originally, mortars consisted of mud and clay, but are now commonly made from sand, water, and a cement or lime binder. They can also be based on epoxy resins or other resins. Rapid-setting mortars harden...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012
  • Introduction to landscaping
    Landscape contractors carry out the construction, design and planning of external spaces, from business parks, public amenity sites and pedestrianised shopping concourses to private estates, historic gardens and social housing developments. Hard landscaping includes paving and wall construction, ground engineering and preparation, site clearance...
    Guidance, 06 December 2012